Is het toegestaan om voor iemand te bidden die zelfmoord heeft gepleegd?
Vraag: Een verstandige volwassen persoon, die bewust zelfmoord heeft gepleegd, heeft zo een persoon recht op djanazaah namaaz? Is het de Wil van Allah swt geweest dat deze persoon zou doodgaan middels zelfmoord?
Antwoord: Bismillaah ar-Rah’maan ar-Rah’iem.
Alle lof is voor Allah.
Een persoon (moslim) die zelfmoord gepleegd heeft, dient gewassen te worden, men dient voor hem te bidden en hij dient bij de moslims begraven te worden. Een moslim die zich zelf doodt is een zondaar, maar hij is geen kaafir (ongelovige). Zelfmoord is een grote zonde, maar geen koefr. Als iemand zelfmoord pleegt – we zoeken toevlucht bij Allah – dient hij gewassen te worden, men dient hem te wikkelen in lijkwaden en men dient voor hem te bidden, maar de khaliefah (leider) en belangrijke mensen dienen niet voor hem te bidden als teken van berisping (afkeuring), om te voorkomen dat er mensen zijn die denken dat zij het goedkeuren wat deze persoon heeft gedaan. Als de khaliefah, leider, rechters, president etc. niet voor deze persoon bidden, als teken dat zij deze daad afkeuren, dit is goed, maar sommige moslims dienen toch het (begrafenis) gebed voor hem te bidden. (Kitaab Majmoo’ Fataawa wa Maqaalaat Mutanawwi’ah li Samaahat al-Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Baaz – vol. 13, p. 122.)
Allahs boodschapper (Allahs zegeningen en vrede zijn met hem) heeft gezegd (Nederlandstalige interpretatie): “Degene die zelfmoord pleegt met een stuk ijzer zal dat stuk ijzer in zijn hand houden en zichzelf ermee slaan in de Hel, voor altijd. Degene die zichzelf doodt door middel van gif, zal in de Hel voorgoed gif drinken en het langzaam doorslikken. Degene die zichzelf doodt door van een berg te vallen, zal in de Hel voor altijd van die berg vallen.” (Sah’ieh’ Moeslim.)
We dienen te weten dat alles wat er gebeurd, gebeurt volgens al-qadar (de goddelijke voorbeschikking) van Allah. Voor meer informatie over het lot (al-qadar), zie punt 6 “Geloof in het lot” in het artikel De zes pilaren van geloof.
Hieronder treft u uitgebreidere informatie (in het Engels) over dit onderwerp aan. We hopen dat we u voldoende hebben geholpen. Mochten we nog iets voor u kunnen doen, dan horen we dat graag. Moge Allah de Verhevene alle moslims leiden op Zijn weg met een diepe kennis waar we naar handelen oprecht en alleen voor Hem, en moge Hij ons vergeven. Amien.
En alle lof is voor Allah.
Lees ook Fataawaa van enkele grote geleerden over zelfmoordaanslagen.
Question: Is it permissible to offer the funeral prayer for one who committed suicide?
Answer: Praise be to Allaah.
Killing oneself is a major sin, and there are stern warnings addressed to the one who does that, but it does not put one beyond the pale of Islam. In the Sunnah it shows that it is permissible for ordinary people to offer the funeral prayer for one who commits suicide, but it is prescribed for the elite, such as scholars and prominent figures, not to offer the funeral prayer for him, as a rebuke and so as to deter others from doing likewise. It was narrated that Jaabir ibn Samurah said: A man who had killed himself with a broad, sharp-edged arrow was brought to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and he did not offer the funeral prayer for him. Narrated by Muslim (978).
Al-Nawawi said: “The scholars said: this hadeeth is to be understood as a deterrent to suicide, just as he did not offer the funeral prayer for one who was in debt, but the Sahaabah offered the funeral prayer for the debtor on the command of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). That was in order to deter others from getting into debt, not because he was a kaafir. According to Maalik it is makrooh to offer the funeral prayer for one who has been stoned to death as a hadd punishment, and one who was immoral, as an expression of disapproval.” (Sharh Muslim, 7/47.)
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah was asked about a man who claimed to be a holy man, then he saw a snake and some of the people wanted to kill it, but he stopped them, then he picked up the snake trying to do a miraculous deed, but the snake bit him and he died. Is it permissible to offer the funeral prayer for him or not?
He replied: “Praise be to Allaah, the Lord of the Worlds. The scholars and people who are religiously committed should not pray for this man and others like him, but the ordinary people should pray for him, just as the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) refrained from praying for a man who had committed suicide, and one who had stolen from the war-booty, but he said: ‘Pray for your companion.’ They said to Samurah ibn Jundub: ‘Your son did not sleep last night.’ He said, ‘Was it because he ate too much?’ They said: ‘Yes.’ He said: ‘If he had died I would not have prayed for him.’ Samurah explained that if he died because he had eaten too much, he would not pray for him, because he would have killed himself by eating too much. And it is more appropriate that the scholars and those who are religiously-committed should refrain from offering the funeral prayer for this man who prevented others from killing the snake, and held it in his hand until it killed him, because he killed himself.” (Al-Fataawa al-Kubra, 3/20, 21.)
Shaykh al-Islam also said: “If a person refrains from praying for one of them – i.e., the one who stole from the war-booty, the one who killed himself and the debtor – as a deterrent to others from doing likewise, then that is good. But if he refrains from praying for him in public but makes du’aa’ for him in private, then he will achieve two ends, which is better than omitting one of them.” (Al-Ikhtiyaaraat al-‘Ilmiyyah, p. 52.)
Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz was asked: Can the funeral prayer be offered for one who kills himself?
He replied: “Some of the Muslims should pray for him, as for any other sinner, because he is still a Muslim according to Ahl al-Sunnah.” (Majmoo’ Fataawa al-Shaykh Ibn Baaz, 13/162.)
And he was asked: Should one who killed himself be washed and the funeral prayer offered for him?
He replied: “The one who killed himself should be washed and the funeral prayer offered for him, and he should be buried with the Muslims, because he is a sinner, but he is not a kaafir; killing oneself is a sin, it is not kufr.
If a person kills himself – Allaah forbid – he should be washed and shrouded, and the funeral prayer offered for him, but the ruler and important figures should refrain from offering the funeral prayer for him as an act of denunciation, lest anyone think that they approve of what he did. If the caliph, ruler, judges, governor, mayor etc do not offer the funeral prayer for him as an act of denunciation and a declaration that this was wrong, then that is a good thing, but some of the worshippers should offer the prayer for him.” (Majmoo’ Fataawa al-Shaykh Ibn Baaz, 13/122; Fataawa Islamiyyah, 2/62.)
My younger brother died by hanging himself. He was only 25 yrs. old. The problem was a small tiff between my mother and himself. We are all deeply shocked and very much grieved. There are so many questions that I would like to ask you regarding this situation. Firstly, why did Allah choose this kind of death for my brother? Secondly, my father is 65 yrs old and he is very pious and my mother is extremely kind and gentle. Why did Allah show this day in their lives? Thirdly, how can we help him (my brother) who is no more? How can we see him in jannat? Can we convey our salam to him? Will our salam reach him?
Also, after we did autopsy we found out that his death was not because of strangulation but because his spinal cord broke. Actually what happened was, there was a swing made out of a cloth for my kid in the room. My brother he took a stool which was nearby and tied it around his neck saying i will take my life. My mother was in the same room, praying. We feel it was not suicide, maybe it was his anger which made him do this.
His friends tell us that he was not the kind to commit suicide. In fact he used to advice his friends against it if they mentioned it.
His funeral was also good and his face did not look like he was suffering or anything. It looked like he was sleeping and we just had to wake him up. Please reply to this as we are very troubled by this sudden demise.
Praise be to Allaah.
In dealing with these questions we must note three things, which are:
1.) Everything happens by the will and decree of Allaah. Everything that happens in this universe, good or bad, happens by the decree of Allaah, under His control and by His will, for there is no lord except Him and no controller besides Him.
2.) We must believe that He is wise in all that He decrees, for His is the utmost wisdom in all that happens in this universe, whether we understand that or not. Indeed, much of Allaah’s wisdom cannot be comprehended by the minds of His slaves. So we must submit to Allaah, by believing that His wisdom is perfect. It is not permissible for us to object to Him, whether that means objecting to His laws or to His decrees.
3.) Suicide is a major sin and a bad end. The one who kills himself in order to escape calamities or poverty or the results of distress or anger has, by doing that, exposed himself to the punishment of Allaah. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “… And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allaah is Most Merciful to you. And whoever commits that through aggression and injustice, We shall cast him into the Fire, and that is easy for Allaah” [al-Nisa’ 4:29]
And it was narrated in al-Saheehayn that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever kills himself with a piece of iron, that iron will be in his hand and he will be stabbing himself in the stomach with it in Hell for ever and ever. Whoever kills himself with poison, that poison will be in his hand and he will be drinking it in Hell…”
Whatever happened in this case, we must refer the matter to Allaah. What appears to be the case is that what happened was suicide, because he hung himself, i.e., he tied a rope around his neck and strangled himself. So either he committed suicide or he wanted to commit suicide. And Allaah knows best.
As for the righteousness of the parents, this does not mean that Allaah will not test them with some calamities, so as to show their patience and so as to erase thereby their sins. For the believer’s whole affair is good: if something good happens to him he gives thanks for it, and that is good for him, and if something bad happens to him, he bears it with patience, and that is good for him, and this applies only to the believer. So being tested with calamities does not mean that the believer is insignificant before Allaah if he is righteous and obeys Allaah. For belief in Allaah, obeying Him and fearing Him are the means that lead to one being honoured by Allaah, and kufr, immorality and disobedience are the means that lead to one being regarded as worthless by Allaah. Whoever is tested with some calamity and bears that with patience, that will raise him in status. Calamities are of different kinds, it may be a sickness, or loss of wealth, or loss of a loved one such as a son, brother, father, husband or wife. Allaah tests His slaves with ease and with calamities, with good and bad, as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “and We shall make a trial of you with evil and with good. And to Us you will be returned” [al-Anbiya’ 21:35]
If the suicide stemmed from ignorance and the person was righteous and obeyed Allaah, and prayed regularly, then there is the hope that Allaah may forgive him, for He is the Most Merciful of those who show mercy. However, if he knew of the ruling on suicide, but he resorted to that in order to get rid of a problem from which he was suffering, then there is the danger that he is included in the warning of the punishment narrated in the hadeeth. But nevertheless he was still a believer in Allaah and His Messenger and a follower of Tawheed, not a mushrik, so he is subject to the Will of Allaah. If Allaah wills He will forgive him, and if He wills he will punish him, but even if He punishes him He will eventually bring him forth from the Fire, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “Verily, Allaah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him (in worship), but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He wills” [al-Nisa’ 4:48]
And the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Everyone who says Laa ilaaha ill-Allaah (there is no god except Allaah) and has an atom’s-weight of faith in his heart will be brought forth from the Fire.”
With regard to his washing and preparation for burial, and his good appearance, that may indeed be a sign that his situation is good, that the consequences will be good for him and that he is excused and forgiven by his Lord. But we cannot be certain about any of these things, although these signs may give us hope. If the one who committed suicide was a Muslim, a follower of Tawheed and one who prayed regularly, then we can show kindness towards him by praying for forgiveness for him and asking Allaah to forgive him his sins, and to forgive him for whatever he did to himself that ended up in suicide.
With regard to what is said in the question criticizing the way which Allaah chose for him to die, this is a kind of objecting to the decree of Allaah. Allaah is the One Who decrees; He is the Creator of all things, and all things are subject to His decree. He is the Most Wise, the All-Knowing, but whatever action is done that goes against His law cannot be justified by saying that this is the decree of Allaah. Whatever happens in the universe of such events does not mean that it is permissible to object to the decree of Allaah, rather we are obliged to believe in the Divine decree and in the Wisdom of the Lord, may He be glorified and exalted.
Shaykh ‘Abd al-Rahmaan al-Barraak. (www.islamqa.info)